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加拿大阿尔伯塔大学迈克尔.霍顿教授荣膺2020年度诺贝尔生理学或医学奖发表时间: 2020年10月21日 18:03 浏览: 次 分享到:

  北京时间 10 月 5 日下午,2020 年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖评选结果揭晓: 诺贝尔委员会宣布,将此奖项颁发给哈维阿尔特(Harvey j. Alter),迈克尔·霍顿(Micheal Houghton)、查尔斯·赖斯(Charles m. Rice),以表彰他们在发现丙型肝炎病毒方面作出的贡献。

  诺奖委员会在该奖项的颁奖词中写道: 感谢他们的发现,现在人们可以准确地检测血液,世界上许多地方消除了输血导致的丙肝,大大改善了全球健康水平。

  在获得诺贝尔奖的三位学者中,尤其值得yabo娱乐关注的是来自阿尔伯塔大学的迈克尔·霍顿教授。他出生于英国,目前是加拿大杰出病毒学研究主席、阿尔伯塔大学李嘉诚病毒学教授,并担任阿尔伯塔大学李嘉诚应用病毒学研究所主任。

Michael Houghton

  20 世纪 80 年代初,丹尼尔 · 布拉德利从黑猩猩的血清中分离了后来称为“丙型肝炎病毒”的“非甲非乙型肝炎病毒”。霍顿得以与布拉德利协作克隆这些病毒,并开发了一种测验血液的方法,在 20 世纪 90 年代初用于肝硬化和肝癌患者。

  1992 年,他与他的团队成员同获美国血库协会卡尔 · 兰德斯泰纳纪念奖。

  1993 年,他与布拉德利获得了罗伯特 · 科赫奖。

  他还获得了 1994 年美国胃肠病协会威廉 · 博蒙特奖。

  2013 年获加拿大盖尔德纳国际奖,但霍顿拒绝领奖,因为两位同事没能一起获奖,他说: “ 我认为如果没有两位同事参与,我接受这个奖项是不公平的。”

  在以三位获奖者为代表的众多学者的共同努力下,丙型肝炎病毒的发现揭示了除甲型和乙型肝炎病毒外剩余病例的病因,并使血液检测和新药成为可能,挽救了数百万人的生命,做出了巨大的贡献。

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诺贝尔生理学或医学奖:

  在诺贝尔奖体系中,颁布给在生理学界或医学界有杰出贡献的科研工作者的奖项。

  历届获奖人中不乏改变医学世界的学者大牛,例如发明青霉素的弗莱明,还有我国杰出科研工作者、发现青蒿素的屠呦呦。

University of Alberta virologist awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

  Michael Houghton discovered hepatitis C virus and now is developing a vaccine.

  Michael Houghton was awarded the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine today in recognition of his discovery of the hepatitis C (HCV) virus.

  His discovery with colleagues Qui-Lim Choo and George Kuo in 1989 opened a new field of viral hepatitis research that led to improved blood safety, and hepatitis C  treatment to the point where the viral infection can now be cured in virtually all  patients.

  New screening tests were developed for blood donations as a result of their discovery. By 1992, the virus was virtually eliminated from the blood supply. This, in 

turn, led to a reduction in annual reported transmission by more than 80 per cent by1996.

  Houghton was recruited to the University of Alberta in 2010 as the Canada 

Excellence Research Chair in Virology in the Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology. Two years later, he and his team created hope with the development of a vaccine for the virus that is known to cause cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and liver cancer. 

About 20 to 30 per cent of people who suffer from hepatitis C develop severe liver 

disease. The vaccine is now in the late pre-clinical stage of testing.

  Based on the discovery of the virus, antiviral therapies have also been developed that will cure 95 per cent of hepatitis C carriers. This is the first chronic viral illness that can be cured.

  Houghton recently began leading an effort to produce a vaccine for COVID-19. He 

had also created a successful vaccine for the SARS-CoV-1 virus in 2004, but it was 

never needed because SARS disappeared.

  “Michael Houghton’s achievement cannot be overstated,” said University of Alberta president Bill Flanagan. “Dr. Houghton has made this world a better place. As president of the University of Alberta, the institution where he has dedicated his time, I am thrilled that his work has been recognized in this way.”

  “Today is a wonderful day for Dr. Houghton and the faculty,” said Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry dean Brenda Hemmelgarn. “Dr. Houghton has been an amazing colleague and powerful force since the first day he joined us, and we are immensely proud of him and his accomplishments.”

  In addition to his role as director of the Li Ka Shing Applied Virology Institute, Houghton is the Li Ka Shing Professor of Virology, and a professor in the Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology in the Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry.

  The Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology was created through a gift of $25 million from the Li Ka Shing (Canada) Foundation, as well as a $52.5-million commitment from the Government of Alberta.

  “This is a great day for Canada, the University of Alberta and the Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology,” said Lorne Tyrrell, director of the institute. “Canada’s only Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was won in 1923 by Frederick Banting and John Macleod. The second prize has come 97 years later—a long-awaited Nobel in medicine for a scientist at a Canadian university. I am extremely proud of Michael and his two colleagues, Harvey Alter and Charlie Rice.”

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